By default, the bounds of the output pixel grid are chosen so that they just encompass all the transformed input data, but they can be set explicitly using Parameters LBOUND and UBOUND.
Two algorithms are available for determining the output pixel values: resampling and rebinning (the method used is determined by the REBIN parameter).
The Mapping to use can be supplied in several different ways (see Parameter MAPPING).
!) value is supplied, then all pixel axes are re-gridded. Otherwise, only the specified pixel axes are regridded. Note, it is not always possible to specify completely arbitrary combinations of pixel axes to be regridded. For instance, if the current WCS Frame contains RA and Dec. axes, then it is not possible to regrid one of the corresponding pixel axes without the other. An error will be reported in such cases.
TRUE, then the output pixel values will be scaled in such a way as to preserve the total data value in a feature on the sky. The scaling factor is the ratio of the output pixel size to the input pixel size. This option can only be used if the Mapping is successfully approximated by one or more linear transformations. Thus an error will be reported if it used when the TOL parameter is set to zero (which stops the use of linear approximations), or if the Mapping is too non-linear to be approximated by a piece-wise linear transformation. The ratio of output to input pixel size is evaluated once for each panel of the piece-wise linear approximation to the Mapping, and is assumed to be constant for all output pixels in the panel. This parameter is ignored if the NORM parameter is set
!) if the input NDF is to be mapped into its own current Frame. If a file is supplied, the forward direction of the Mapping should transform pixel co-ordinates in the input NDF into the corresponding pixel co-ordinates in the output NDF. If only a subset of pixel axes are being re-gridded, then the inputs to the Mapping should correspond to the pixel axes specified via Parameter AXES. The file may be one of the following.
A text file containing a textual representation of the AST Mapping to use. Such files can be created by WCSADD.
A text file containing a textual representation of an AST FrameSet. If the FrameSet contains a Frame with Domain PIXEL, then the Mapping used is the Mapping from the PIXEL Frame to the current Frame. If there is no PIXEL Frame in the FrameSet, then the Mapping used is the Mapping from the base Frame to the Current Frame.
A FITS file. The Mapping used is the Mapping from the FITS pixel co-ordinates in which the centre of the bottom-left pixel is at co-ordinates (1,1), to the co-ordinate system represented by the primary WCS headers, CRVAL, CRPIX, etc.
An NDF. The Mapping used is the Mapping from the PIXEL Frame to the Current Frame of its WCS FrameSet.
If a null (
!) value is supplied, the Mapping used is the Mapping from pixel
co-ordinates in the input NDF to the current Frame in the input NDF. The output NDF
will then have pixel co-ordinates which match the co-ordinates of the current Frame of
the input NDF (apart from possible additional scalings as specified by the SCALE
"Bilinear" –- When resampling, the output pixel values are calculated by bi-linear
interpolation among the four nearest pixels values in the input NDF. When rebinning,
the input pixel value is divided up bi-linearly between the four nearest output pixels.
Produces smoother output NDFs than the nearest-neighbour scheme, but is marginally
"Nearest" –- When resampling, the output pixel values are assigned the value of the
single nearest input pixel. When rebinning, the input pixel value is assigned
completely to the single nearest output pixel.
"Sinc" –- Uses the
is the pixel offset from the interpolation point (resampling) or transformed input pixel centre
(rebinning), and .
Use of this scheme is not recommended.
"SincSinc" –- Uses the
kernel. A valuable general-purpose scheme, intermediate in its visual effect on NDFs
between the bi-linear and nearest-neighbour schemes.
"SincCos" –- Uses the
kernel. Gives similar results to the
"SincGauss" –- Uses the
kernel. Good results can be obtained by matching the FWHM of the envelope function to
the point-spread function of the input data (see Parameter PARAMS).
"Somb" –- Uses the
is the pixel offset from the interpolation point (resampling) or transformed input pixel centre
(rebinning), and .
the first-order Bessel function of the first kind. This scheme is similar to the
"SombCos" –- Uses the
kernel. This scheme is similar to the
"Gauss" –- Uses the
kernel. The FWHM of the Gaussian is given by Parameter PARAMS(2), and the point at
which to truncate the Gaussian to zero is given by Parameter PARAMS(1).
"BlockAve" –- Block averaging over all pixels in the surrounding
cube. This option is only available when resampling (i.e. if REBIN is set to
All methods propagate variances from input to output, but the variance estimates
produced by these schemes other than nearest neighbour need to be treated with care
since the spatial smoothing produced by these methods introduces correlations in the
variance estimates. Also, the degree of smoothing produced varies across the NDF.
This is because a sample taken at a pixel centre will have no contributions
from the neighbouring pixels, whereas a sample taken at the corner of a pixel
will have equal contributions from all four neighbouring pixels, resulting
in greater smoothing and lower noise. This effect can produce complex Moiré
patterns in the output variance estimates, resulting from the interference
of the spatial frequencies in the sample positions and in the pixel-centre
positions. For these reasons, if you want to use the output variances, you are
generally safer using nearest-neighbour interpolation. The initial default
TRUE(the default), then each output value is normalised by dividing it by the number of contributing input pixels, resulting in each output value being the weighted mean of the contributing input values. However, if NORM is set
FALSE, this normalisation is not applied. See also Parameter CONSERVE.
PARAMS(1) is required by all the above schemes. It is used to specify how many pixels
are to contribute to the interpolated result on either side of the interpolation or
binning point in each dimension. Typically, a value of
2 is appropriate and the minimum
allowed value is
1 (i.e. one pixel on each side). A value of zero or fewer
indicates that a suitable number of pixels should be calculated automatically.
PARAMS(2) is required only by the Gauss, SincSinc, SincCos, and SincGauss schemes.
For the SombCos, SincSinc, and SincCos schemes, it specifies the number of
pixels at which the envelope of the function goes to zero. The minimum value
1.0, and the run-time default value is
2.0. For the Gauss and SincGauss
schemes, it specifies the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the Gaussian
envelope measured in output pixels. The minimum value is
0.1, and the run-time
1.0. On astronomical images and spectra, good results are often
obtained by approximately matching the FWHM of the envelope function, given by
PARAMS(2), to the point-spread function of the input data.
TRUEvalue is given, a rebinning algorithm is used. Otherwise, a resampling algorithm is used. See the “Choice of Algorithm” topic below.
!) value is supplied for SCALE, then default values are used which depends on the value of Parameter MAPPING. If a null value is supplied for MAPPING then the default scaling factors are chosen so that pixels retain their original size (very roughly) after transformation. If as non-null value is supplied for MAPPING then the default scaling factor used is 1.0 for each axis (i.e. no scaling).
!) propagates the title from the input NDF to the output NDF.
TRUE. It specifies the minimum number of good pixels which must contribute to an output pixel for the output pixel to be valid. Note, fractional values are allowed. A null (
!) value causes a very small positive value to be used resulting in output pixels being set bad only if they receive no significant contribution from any input pixel.
rotate.ast(which may have been created using WCSADD for instance).
If the input NDF contains a VARIANCE component, a VARIANCE component will be written to the output NDF. It will be calculated on the assumption that errors on the input data values are statistically independent and that their variance estimates may simply be summed (with appropriate weighting factors) when several input pixels contribute to an output data value. If this assumption is not valid, then the output error estimates may be biased. In addition, note that the statistical errors on neighbouring output data values (as well as the estimates of those errors) may often be correlated, even if the above assumption about the input data is correct, because of the sub-pixel interpolation schemes employed.
The resampling algorithm steps through every pixel in the output image, sampling the input image at the corresponding position and storing the sampled input value in the output pixel. The method used for sampling the input image is determined by the METHOD parameter. The rebinning algorithm steps through every pixel in the input image, dividing the input pixel value between a group of neighbouring output pixels, incrementing these output pixel values by their allocated share of the input pixel value, and finally normalising each output value by the total number of contributing input values. The way in which the input sample is divided between the output pixels is determined by the METHOD parameter.
Both algorithms produce an output in which the each pixel value is the weighted mean of
the nearby input values, and so do not alter the mean pixel values associated
with a source, even if the pixel size changes. Thus the total data sum in a
source will change if the input and output pixel sizes differ. However, if
the CONSERVE parameter is set
TRUE, the output values are scaled by the ratio
of the output to input pixel size, so that the total data sum in a source is
A difference between resampling and rebinning is that resampling guarantees to fill the output image with good pixel values (assuming the input image is filled with good input pixel values), whereas holes can be left by the rebinning algorithm if the output image has smaller pixels than the input image. Such holes occur at output pixels that receive no contributions from any input pixels, and will be filled with the value zero in the output image. If this problem occurs, the solution is probably to change the width of the pixel spreading function by assigning a larger value to PARAMS(1) and/or PARAMS(2) (depending on the specific METHOD value being used).
Both algorithms have the capability to introduce artefacts into the output image. These have various causes described below.
Particularly sharp features in the input can cause rings around the corresponding features in the output image. This can be minimised by suitable settings for the METHOD and PARAMS parameters. In general such rings can be minimised by using a wider interpolation kernel (if resampling) or spreading function (if rebinning), at the cost of degraded resolution.
The approximation of the Mapping using a piece-wise linear transformation (controlled
by Parameter TOL) can produce artefacts at the joints between the panels of the
approximation. These can occur when using the rebinning algorithm, or when using the
resampling algorithm with CONSERVE set to
TRUE. They are caused by the discontinuities
between the adjacent panels of the approximation, and can be minimised by reducing the
value assigned to the TOL parameter.
The LABEL, UNITS, and HISTORY components, and all extensions are propagated. TITLE is
controlled by the TITLE parameter. DATA, VARIANCE, and WCS are propagated after
appropriate modification. The QUALITY component is also propagated if Nearest-Neighbour
interpolation is being used (note, REBIN must be
FALSE). The AXIS component is not
All non-complex numeric data types can be handled. If REBIN is
TRUE, the data type will
be converted to one of _INTEGER, _DOUBLE or _REAL for processing.
There can be an arbitrary number of NDF dimensions.